Overcoming Bias in Guardian Ad Litem Custody Reports

In custody proceedings, a court-appointed Guardian Ad Litem (GAL) assumes a crucial role as a representative for the child or children involved. 

Their responsibilities encompass conducting investigations, gathering information, and preparing a comprehensive custody report that informs the court of findings and recommendations.

Tim’s Legal Tip: Guardian Ad Litem bias can undermine the impartiality and fairness of custody proceedings. This bias poses a significant risk, potentially compromising the child’s best interests and resulting in an unjust custody decision.

This article explores the identification of GAL bias and offers valuable insights on effectively addressing this issue. 

Exposing Bias in a Guardian Ad Litem Custody Report

Recognizing bias within a guardian ad litem custody report is essential for rectifying potential imbalances. The following strategies can help identify bias:

1. Thorough Document Analysis

Carefully analyze the report for statements that reflect bias or stereotypes. Look for instances where subjective opinions overshadow factual information. Pay attention to any inconsistencies or unsupported claims made by the GAL.

2. Cross-Examination of The Guardian ad Litem

One of the best ways I have found to prove GAL bias is cross-examination. If bias is suspected, your attorney should cross-examine the GAL during the court proceedings to explore the basis for their recommendations. 

I once had a case where the mother accused the father of being drunk and physically and verbally abusing their children. She was seeking sole legal custody. Because of the allegation of abuse, the court appointed a GAL.

The court-appointed guardian ad litem wrote a report substantiating the abuse. Our position was that the GAL took the mother’s word as truth without thoroughly examining the allegations.

During cross-examination, we were able to show that despite the presence of independent witnesses who could provide an unbiased account of the alleged events, the GAL neglected to question or seek their testimony, solely relying on the mother’s account.

During the cross-examination, the GAL admitted to not interviewing the independent witness. It also came to light that the GAL had a personal connection with the mother’s new boyfriend, raising concerns about his impartiality.

Ultimately, the court determined that no abuse had occurred. This story highlights the bias exhibited by the GAL, as he overlooked crucial evidence and failed to conduct a thorough investigation, potentially compromising the fairness of the custody proceedings.

3. Comparison with Independent Expert Opinions

Seek opinions from independent experts, such as psychologists or social workers, to compare their case assessment with the GAL’s report. 

This can provide valuable insights into any potential biases in the custody report.

4. Solicit Feedback from All Parties Involved

Gather feedback from parents, the child (if age-appropriate), and other relevant individuals involved in the case. Their perspectives may shed light on any biases exhibited by the GAL or provide additional context to support or challenge the custody report’s findings.

Overcoming and Defeating Bias in a Guardian Ad Litem Custody Report

Once bias has been identified, addressing it promptly and effectively is essential. Here are some strategies to consider:

1. Challenging the GAL’s Recommendations

If bias is evident in the custody report, it is crucial to challenge the GAL’s recommendations during court proceedings. Present alternative evidence and perspectives that counter the biased claims made in the report. 

Emphasize the importance of an unbiased evaluation that genuinely considers the child’s best interests. Present compelling arguments supported by evidence to counter any biased assertions made by the GAL.

2. Requesting a GAL Change

If the bias in the custody report is severe or persistent, requesting a change of GAL is appropriate. This should be done through proper legal channels, highlighting the concerns regarding bias and requesting a new GAL who can provide a fair and impartial evaluation of the case.

3. Good Legal Representation and Advocacy

Make sure you hire a good attorney. Seeking legal representation from an experienced family law attorney is crucial to effectively advocate for the child’s best interests. 

A skilled attorney can help identify and address bias in the custody report, present a strong case in court, and ensure that the child’s rights are protected.

4. Bringing in Expert Witnesses

Consider bringing in expert witnesses, such as psychologists or child development specialists, to provide professional opinions and evaluations of the case. Their expertise can offer an objective perspective and help counter any biased claims made by the GAL.

5. Filing a Motion To Point Out The Bias and Request Additional Investigation

In cases where bias is egregious, it may be necessary to file a motion with the court, bringing attention to the biased practices of the GAL. 

Your motion must provide clear evidence and examples of the bias observed and request appropriate remedies, such as a new custody evaluation or a reconsideration of the GAL’s recommendations.

6. Seeking Mediation or Alternative Dispute Resolution

Explore mediation or alternative dispute resolution methods to address the bias and reach a resolution that is fair and in the best interests of the child. 

A neutral mediator can help facilitate productive conversations and guide the parties toward a mutually agreeable solution.

Common Forms of Bias in Guardian Ad Litem Custody Reports

Bias can manifest in various ways within a guardian ad litem custody report. Here are a few common forms of bias that should be carefully examined:

1. Confirmation Bias

This occurs when a GAL actively seeks information that confirms pre-existing beliefs or stereotypes, disregarding evidence that contradicts their initial assumptions. I describe this as “what you look for, you will find.” 

2. Cultural Bias

Cultural biases may arise when a GAL fails to acknowledge or understand the nuances and cultural practices of the child and their family, leading to judgments based on misguided assumptions.

3. Gender Bias

Bias based on gender can arise if a GAL assigns predetermined roles or attributes to the parents or makes assumptions about the child’s preferences based on gender stereotypes.

4. Personal Bias

Personal biases, such as personal experiences or prejudices, may influence a GAL’s perception of the case and impact their recommendations.

The Importance of Addressing Bias in a Guardian Ad Litem Custody Report

Guardian ad litem custody reports hold significant weight in court proceedings, often influencing the decisions made by judges. 

It is crucial to recognize that bias can inadvertently seep into these reports, potentially compromising the objectivity and impartiality required for a fair case evaluation. 

Addressing bias is vital to maintaining the integrity of the custody report and ensuring the child’s best interests are prioritized.


Q. Can bias in a custody report significantly impact the outcome of a custody case?

Yes, bias in a custody report can significantly impact the outcome of a case. Judges often rely on the recommendations made by the GAL, and if bias is present, it may lead to unfair decisions that do not prioritize the child’s best interests.

Q. Is it possible to request a change of GAL if bias is present?

Yes, it is possible to request a change of GAL if bias is evident. Consult with your attorney and follow the proper legal procedures to request a new GAL who can provide an unbiased evaluation of the case.

Q. Can bringing in expert witnesses help counter biased claims in a custody report?

Yes, expert witnesses, such as psychologists or child development specialists, can provide professional opinions and evaluations that counter biased claims in a custody report. Their expertise can bolster your case and provide an objective perspective.


Bias can inadvertently influence the recommendations made by a GAL, potentially leading to unfair outcomes. By identifying bias, challenging biased recommendations, seeking legal representation, and advocating for the child’s best interests, it is possible to rectify the situation and promote a fair evaluation of the case.

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Tim McDuffey is a practicing attorney in the State of Missouri. Tim is a licensed member of the Missouri Bar and Missouri Bar Association.

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